More and more older people in Germany are at risk of poverty0
More and more older people in Germany are at risk of poverty
If you stay south of the Alps, especially in Italy, you will be told that cappuccino originated there. If, on the other hand, you are in German-speaking countries, connoisseurs will assure you that the special frothed milk coffee comes from the Austrian capital Vienna. Here the forerunner of the coffee specialty was called “Kapuziner” and was right at the top of the order list for visitors to classic Viennese coffee houses. But why “Capuchins”? This designation refers to the hood of a monk’s robe, in Italian “cappuccio”, which is similar in color to the brown hot drink. Historians suggest that soldiers from Austria, who were stationed in northern Italian provinces during World War I, brought the cappuccino to Italy at that time. >>
A good cappuccino is an art. (Source: Thinkstock by Getty-Images)
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The idea for the milk foam should come from the Italians, because for the Austrian version it was typical that the coffee was topped with cream instead of foam, also called “whipped cream”. To make a real cappuccino, a few rules must be observed . First of all, the size of the cups used is 150 to 180 milliliters. This is just enough for the optimal portioning of the two parts that make up cappuccino: espresso and milk foam. The components are put together in about half each. Experienced baristas combine espresso and milk foam in such a way that a crown of milk foam remains at the top, which also enhances the look of the coffee, while the rest of the milk foam combines with the espresso at the bottom.
The milk is ideally frothed at a maximum of 65 to 70 ° C and then forms a perfect harmonious combination with the black gold. If the temperature were higher, the hot drink would have too strong a taste of boiled milk. >>
In addition to the ingredients, a characteristic of cappuccino is that it is always drunk sweetened. A typical cappuccino is usually served in cups made of thick porcelain or earthenware. A typical mixing ratio of the Robusta and Arabica coffee beans used for cappuccino is 10 to 90 up to 40 to 60.
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A pleasure for connoisseurs and experts
Creating a perfect cappuccino is not that easy for beginners. Ambitious people should work hard on this art. In the meantime, the decoration of the milk foam has even become a sporting competition among baristas. Passionate coffee makers often try to decorate the foam particularly beautifully and individually – after all, the eye can also enjoy it. If you invent a special decoration, you can make it your trademark and become a real celebrity in the world of coffee.community service thesis examples After all, impressed customers remember when they are delighted with the pampering look and word gets around among connoisseurs. If milk foam sport becomes an official contest, it is called latte art design, a real sport that is practiced at the World Latte Art Contest, among other places. Anyone who competes in this tournament has to prepare two perfectly successful cappuccini, espressi macchiati and signature drinks within eight minutes. A competition with truly delicious results.
More and more older people in Germany are at risk of poverty. The proportion of pensioners at risk of poverty is slightly lower in the east than in the west, where it is even slightly above the population average. As reported by the Federal Statistical Office in Wiesbaden, in 2013 in the new federal states (including Berlin) 12.5 percent of people aged 65 and over were at risk of poverty. In the old federal states this rate was 14.8 percent.
Compared to 2011, the proportion has increased by 1.1 percentage points in both the west and the east.
The risk of poverty increases
In the former federal territory, the risk of poverty among pensioners has been increasing year after year since 2006 (11.0 percent). In the new federal states this also applies – with one exception. In 2006 the rate there was still 8.3 percent. The risk of poverty in Germany begins for a person living alone when their monthly income is below EUR 892.
And the situation will continue to get worse. In order to secure their standard of living, retirees are missing an average of 350 euros per month more than previously estimated.
According to the fund company’s “financial knowledge for all” campaign, the rule of thumb is that retirees need around 80 percent of their last net income in order to be able to maintain their usual standard of living. According to the Bochum researchers, in the ideal case the statutory pension only replaced just under 60 percent. In reality, the situation is often even more dramatic due to fragile employment histories, part-time phases and time off.
Additional provision is necessary
Because the pension payments from the state will not be sufficient for many citizens, experts strongly advise to make additional private provision for old age.
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In order to determine the extra requirement, employees can use the pension gap calculator of the German fund association BVI. The calculator shows the future amount of the statutory pension in today’s purchasing power as well as the level in percent of the last net wage. If you have a pension of 60 percent, for example, you have to top up about 20 percentage points, the calculator also indicates the amount.
Morning coffee is a fixed ritual for many. But the brown bean is becoming more and more of a trend topic for us too: first it was the coffee-to-go, then the capsules and coffee pods. Another trend is now spilling over to Germany: extremely light roasts. They are much fruity than other coffee, but not everyone likes it. A hint of lemon makes this coffee roast so special and tasty.
Light roasted coffee
Photo series with 9 pictures
Coffee used to be just coffee. Today it comes from fincas in Ethiopia, Colombia or Kenya, is called Breakfast Blend, Indriya or Guatemala Grande and comes in capsules, pads or puristically designed bags from local manufacturers. Quality is required, as is individual preparation. After all, there are up to 1000 flavors in every bean that need to be teased out. “The very dark, glossy espresso beans were popular for a long time and therefore had a very chocolaty taste and a good crema,” explains Hannes Fendrich from the gourmet and organic coffee dealer Coffee Circle in Berlin. Lighter roasts have recently been on the rise, a development that has been evident in the USA and Scandinavia for some time. “The beans are simply roasted for a shorter time,” says Fendrich, who is responsible for purchasing and roasting. >>
For high-quality coffees, the traditional and gentle drum roasting process is used, which takes considerably more time than the hot roasting process for industrial coffees. It makes the coffee more digestible. In addition, the aromas can fully develop. “We roast our coffees so long that the flavor aromas are clearly expressed and only the fine fruit acids are retained,” explains Fendrich. The longer the beans are roasted, the more acid is removed from them. If the coffee is to be fruity, it is roasted for a shorter time.
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This is nothing new for the coffee dealer and sommelier Michael Gliss from Cologne. “Filter coffees have always been roasted for a shorter time,” he says. The reason: With espresso, the water usually only remains in the powder for 20 seconds, with the traditional filter method much longer, since espresso roasting would lead to an excess of aromas. Nevertheless, he cannot win anything from the very light roasts. >>
“You want to break down the acidity that makes coffees unfriendly to the stomach and instead unpack the aromas,” says Gliss. Nevertheless, some coffee suppliers have dedicated themselves to extremely light roasts based on the models from the USA and Scandinavia. For some time now, coffee has been coming to the fore as an individual, diverse natural product – again prepared in the filter. “You can compare this variety with that of wine,” explains Annika Poloczek from Green Cup Coffee, also a supplier of light roasts.
Coffee is like wine – every harvest tastes different
Coffee sommelier Gliss shares this view. “When it comes to wine, you also ask which region and which estate it comes from,” he says. And coffee from Kenya tastes different than one from Guatemala, every harvest too. In Germany, filter preparation has always been the most common method. You are currently only experiencing an upgrade. “For the various filter methods, for example hand filters or stamp jugs, shorter-roasted, single-country coffees are particularly suitable, the so-called single-estate coffees, because the aromas come out particularly well.” This is particularly true of the extremely light roasts, which then sometimes taste like lemon or orange. “Basically, it’s about diversity and showing the full spectrum,” says Poloczek. However, they are not necessarily suitable for everyday use. Fendrich does not yet see the light roasted goods as a mass product, but rather a very special luxury item that is best enjoyed pure and then very consciously. “It’s just exciting to discover the different flavors,” says Fendrich. For preparation, he recommends coffee machines with a water temperature between 90 and 96 degrees. You can also let the coffee swell a little. That means: first moisten the flour and then wait 30 seconds before adding more water. And of course, it’s best to freshly grind the beans, as the flavors evaporate as soon as the bean is cracked.
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Discover the many options for preparing coffee
And so extremely light roasts are just one of many ways to discover the diversity of coffee. “It is crucial that the roast is appropriate to the bean,” emphasizes Gliss. If you love coffee and espresso, you should stay curious and try different roasts, varieties and methods of preparation.
Poor people in Stuttgart do not have to do without a warm meal at the Vesper Church even in Corona times. “We are starting, but in a reduced form,” said the deaconry pastor in charge, Gabriele Ehrmann, of the German Press Agency in Stuttgart. According to the previous planning, the Leonhardskirche, the mother of the Vesper churches in the country, will only open the door to 240 people a day from January 17 to March 6, due to the corona distance rules. Otherwise there are around 600.
They should be able to have breakfast or lunch in the church in four tranches of 60 men and women each. Everyone should be able to linger for an hour, in between ventilation and disinfection. “That is better than nothing,” emphasized Ehrmann. The Vesper Church, first established in 1995, is the oldest in the country and lasts the longest at seven weeks.
Other congregations were forced to cancel the Vesper Church or to switch entirely to packed lunches due to lack of space, said Ehrmann. As things stand, only three or four of the more than 30 Protestant Vesper churches in the country planned to offer opportunities to stay.
Ehrmann also relies on packed lunches and a delivery service from the cooperating Catholic community. The bottom line is that she expects to feed 600 people in need every day. Other offers are on the back burner: Basic medical care will continue to exist, but the free hairdressing service and foot care will probably be dispensed with. According to Ehrmann, the final decisions will be coordinated with the health and regulatory authorities.
The food on offer in the inner city church costs around 350,000 euros; 180,000 euros of this are food costs, to which the users only contribute a few percent. “Everyone gives as much as they can,” explains Ehrmann. The other expenses relate to storage, transport, laundry and toilet costs. The funds come from loyal donors and from collections.
Some of the volunteer helpers – otherwise 900 in number – have canceled out of fear of infection. However, the pastor was confident that she would get enough staff.
Coffee is the Germans’ favorite drink: whether filter or instant coffee, “to go” or with a piece of cake. Turkish mocha, however? Nothing! Reason enough to introduce you to this specialty that was even once banned.
Turkish mocha – a pleasure
Photo series with 5 pictures
The German word “coffee” is closely related to the Turkish term. Borrowed from Arabic, the Turkish “kahve” first made it through Italy (“caffè”) to France (“café”), until it also became known as coffee in Germany. “Türk kahvesi” means Turkish mocha today. It can look back on a long tradition. The first coffee beans reached the court of the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire as early as the 16th century. As a result, a culture of coffee houses emerged. At the end of the century Istanbul alone housed around 600 such houses, in which an increasing number of intellectuals engaged in a lively exchange of ideas. Although Turkish mocha was banned for religious reasons, its triumphant advance continued in secret until the caffeinated drink was finally officially recognized in 1839.